Levels of Editing

In general, PROOFREADING involves the identification and correction of typographical errors, punctuation errors, misspellings, and formatting inconsistencies. It may also mean comparing two documents for uniformity.

COPYEDITING covers the same areas, but may include grammar, word usage, capitalization, word breaks, tone, and format.

DEVELOPMENTAL / SUBSTANTIVE EDITING (moderate to heavy) seeks to achieve clarity of subject, logic, and consistency. Confusing and awkward writing may be reworked. Sentences are analysed for structure/syntax. Long sentences may be enumerated or separated. Proofreading, copyediting and substantive editing often occur simultaneously.

FORMATTING As required, style revisions will be suggested or implemented (e.g., page numbers, margins, headings, spacing, indentations/paragraphs, quotes, references, citations, footnotes/ endnotes).


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